Heart Valve Disease

The heart has four valves that can be affected by disease. Heart valve conditions include regurgitation, stenosis and atresia. Regurgitation occurs when the valve doesn’t close properly and blood leaks back into the chamber. Stenosis is a condition that prevents the heart valve from fully opening and atresia happens if there is no opening in the heart valve for blood to flow through.

Risk Factors

Some factors that may increase the risk of Heart Valve Disease include:

  • Age
  • A history of previous heart conditions, especially heart inflammation, rheumatic fever, heart attack, or heart failure
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Family history


The main sign of Heart Valve Disease is an unusual heartbeat called a heart murmur. Other symptoms can include fatigue, shortness of breath or swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen, veins and neck.

Detection and Diagnosis

An unusual heartbeat sound called a murmur is the most common sign of heart valve disease. Your doctor can hear a heart murmur through a stethoscope. Other diagnostic tests include cardiac catheterization, stress testing and echocardiography.


Treatment varies depending on the type of Heart Valve Disease you have. Often times, lifestyle changes and medication can help manage the symptoms. Other times, surgery such as Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR), Valvuloplasty or MitraClip may be needed.

Learn More About Our Treatment Options

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement